Childhood overweight-obesity and periodontal diseases: is there a real correlation?
G. L. Sfasciotti , R. Marini , A. Pacifici , G. Ierardo , L. Pacifici, A. Polimeni
Objective. The association between obesity and periodontitis has been extensively investigated in adults but not in young people. The aim of this study was to examine the association between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in pediatric subjects.
Methods. Controlled cross-sectional study involving 100 school children of both gender (50 M and 50 F) between 7 and 12 years of age (mean age 9,19±1,57). Two groups were formed based on Body Mass Index value: test group with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2 and control group with BMI ≤ 24 Kg/m2. Diet intake and oral hygiene habits were recorded by a specific questionnaire and the periodontal clinical parameters were evaluated.
Results. The periodontal examination in the control group revealed a full-mouth plaque score (FMPS) value equal to 21.86% against 50.08% in the group of patients overweight/obese; the fullmouth bleeding score (FMBS) in the control group amounted to 12.7% against 26.24% of test group. No patient in either group included in the study presented a probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥3, so a significant difference regarding this value was not found. Regarding the frequency and quantity of food consumption, the number of obese patients who did not follow a balanced diet largely exceeded the number of normal-weight patients (70 versus 20%).
Conclusions. These results focus the attention on the negative impact of obesity on gingival health in young subjects, probably due to a combination of metabolic and inflammatory profiles and the result of a careless attitude towards prevention diseases of the oral cavity.